When it comes to understanding the details our genetics, scientists have a host of new technology innovations they rely on to take care of next generation sequencing. High-capacity computer systems are at the heart of any NGS project, which will rely on a variety of approaches to sequence segments of DNA.
In order to understand the bases that make up DNA and what order they appear in, scientists harness NGS technology, which continues to advance. Each innovation in computer hardware and software allows researchers to conduct faster studies more comprehensively. After extracting DNA or RNA from a test subject, it’s time to sequence the genetic sequences to get to the heart of the matter.
With that in mind, here’s an overview of different types of next generation sequencing scientists are using in their genetic testing and engineering efforts.
* Amplicon Sequencing: This involves analyzing any variations that appear in specific regions of a genome under study. The technique uses polymerase chain reaction to amplify the DNA and is often the method of choice for scientists looking to detect variants of diseases when attempting to detect the cause of an illness and for diagnosis, according to Integrated DNA Technologies.
* Hybridization Capture: Technicians using hybridization capture begin by converting their samples into “sequencing libraries.” Then, they select the most interesting regions from a library and capture them with long oligonucleotide biotinylated baits. You can also use this method for cancer diagnosis and detecting rare variants of diseases.
* Molecular Inversion Probes: A scientist employs molecular inversion to enrich targets under study. They ligate specific sequences to both ends of a “universal sequence” to construct an MIP. It’s a technology that is found in large-scale genotype efforts.
* Targeted Sequencing: Sometimes, researchers want to use next generation sequencing to identify a specific section of a genome for more detailed studies. With targeted sequencing, you can isolate and identify new variants of interest. It uses less data than other, more information-dense approaches, such as what’s typically employed during whole genome sequencing projects.
* Whole Exome Sequencing: When scientists are studying every protein-coding gene in a genome, they will turn to WES. The idea is to explore the protein-coding exons to reduce the amount of time and expense of next generation sequencing projects. This is because the exons comprise a mere 1% of the entire genome.
* Whole Genome Sequencing: Scientists will employ whole genome sequencing when they need to compare entire genomes. It’s called for when they are trying to get to the root of a rare disorder, as noted by Integrated DNA Technologies.
* RNA Sequencing Efforts:
For RNA next generation sequencing, scientists will use whole transcriptome sequencing technology. They want to comprehend the entire transcriptome because of the inherent variability of RNA expression according to the subject’s current state of disease and the type of cell under study.
They also employ targeted gene expression using RNA sequencing. You can then target a specific section of RNA.
In cases of ribosomal RNA depletion, it’s worth noting that ribosomal RNA accounts for as much as 95% of the RNA in a cell. You can save time by avoiding scans of this RNA since the expression is seen as constant and not of interest to researchers doing NGS projects.
Staying Current on Innovations in Next Generation Sequencing
It’s clear that researchers need access to as many tools as possible in their efforts to sequence DNA in animals and people for experimental research and to develop new methods for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up studies. So it is useful to stay on top of developments of next generation sequencing technology and how it is being used in laboratories, research institutions, and clinical settings.